BODIES OF KNOWLEDGE (BOK)

The Bodies of Knowledge (BoK) identify the different areas of competency for the Library and Information Profession. The 11 BoK's are clustered in six managable groups, which makes it easier to gather evidence t revalidate .

Familiarity and practice with each of the six clusters of 11 BoKs ensures New Zealand library and information professionals have a broad knowledge base and skill set.

The BoKs are used to ensure comprehensive coverage in your revalidation journal, and help registrants stay up to date with the changes in the sector.

For an explanation of each of the 11 BoKs, click on an individual BoK cluster for more information:

BOK CLUSTER 1
Understanding the information environment

BOK CLUSTER 2
Understanding information needs, generations and access

BOK CLUSTER 3
Understanding information resource and knowledge management

BOK CLUSTER 4
Understanding information and communication technologies

BOK CLUSTER 5
Understanding management in information organisations

BOK CLUSTER 6
Understanding Maori knowledge paradigms 

If you've been asked to map your experience against the BoKs for your Professional Registration application, simply go through each BoK and explain your understanding of it. Remember to use self-reflection and note how you put these skills into practice in your current role or past roles.

BOK MAPPING 101

When we ask you to map your career against the Body of Knowledge, the PR Board is looking for you to go through your study, career, and other experience, and find relevant examples that demonstrate your understanding of each area of the body of knowledge.  Generally we expect a maximum of 250 words against each BOK.

For example – under BOK 1 which is about the information environment, information policy, and ethics you could talk about working within the LIANZA or Te Rōpu Whakahau code  of conduct.  You could potentially go wider and talk about your understanding of the implications of a change to legislation on our copyright environment.  Or you could discuss how you have supported organisations where you have worked to understand their obligations under the Treaty of Waitangi.

This shows you have experience in each area, and understand what each specific area of the Body of Knowledge is about.

HERE'S AN EXAMPLE OF HOW YOU MAP YOUR 11 BOKS AGAINST YOUR CAREER

BOK MY UNDERSTANDING PERSONAL APPLICATION
BoK 1

The information environment, information policy and ethics

This BoK considers the broad professional context that libraries sit it.

Over many years I have been following with interest changes to the publishing and distribution models, first with music, then newspapers and now books.  Copyright legislation and Free Trade agreements also have an impact on the information landscape.  One example of library ethics I find particularly inspiring is the librarians in the US who were the first to challenge a letter of seizure under the Patriot act.

Discussion about privacy legislation and public library responsibilities for keeping borrower data safe.

Investigating the use of Creative Commons licence for locally generated content and implementing this with staff.

Treaty of Waitangi training.

BoK 2

Generating, communicating and using information

This BoK seeks to encourage the active creation of information for ourselves, our colleagues and our customers.

As web based tools have grown in number and sophistication there are now endless ways of creating and sharing information.  New information formats also increasingly available.  In print you now have graphic novels and zines to add to collections as well as a range of digital formats such as databases and e-books.  All of these appeal to different customers and meet different information needs.

Generating content for staff wiki using a variety of web2.0 tools.

Evaluation of databases and annual review of subscriptions.  Bringing together a cross-library team to be part of this work.

Introduction of e-books into the collections.

BoK 3

Information needs and design

This Bok covers the wide range of ways that information can be made available and matching those channels with different users.

Included in this is the physical environment that resources sit in.  Over time I have experienced the shift from libraries being ‘book warehouses’ to more and more space being dedicated to community use for reading, study and programmes.  The ‘librarian as gatekeeper’ no longer exists and collections, both physical and digital need to be much more DIY; intuitive and easy to use for all customers.  Programmes that are run are now much more customised to specific groups within the community.

Participating in out of hours library orientation for kaumātua.

Major reorganisation and weeding of non-fiction collection to improve the flow of the collection, reduce customer confusion and open up more study and reading space.

BoK 4

The information access process

This Bok acknowledges that everyone absorbs information differently and needs different things for their library.

For some a written guide works best and for others one to one attention and assistance is what is needed.  This is not only driven by ages and stages but different learning styles that need to be supported.

Departmental page on new Sharepoint intranet.

Creation of a staff wiki to replace the ‘reference folder’.

BoK 5

Organisation, retrieval, preservation and conservation

This Bok deals with the practical aspects of making information accessible.

My understanding is that this is a critical skill to any librarian.  Information is useless if you can’t find it so the ability to arrange, describe, store and preserve information is of central importance to what we do.  This may take many forms and different types of materials have different requirements.  Items that are born digital still need to be preserved and made accessible but this happens in quite a different way to a physical object.

The development of disaster recovery plans now need to take the digital environment into account as well as the physical.

Disaster recovery plan.

Asset management database.

Contribute to the Business Continuity plan.

BoK 6

Research, analysis and interpretation of information

This Bok focuses on the gathering, analysis and implementation of information, the research process.

To me this is the process of accessing the knowledge of those who have gone before, collecting information from colleagues and known sources such as the APLM wiki and published sources and using that to inform my own understanding.

This information can also be used to support recommendations in a report , measure the effectiveness of a programme or service against others and becoming informed about a new area of work.

Gathering benchmarking data for council reviews and reports.

Contributing to the development of user surveys.

BoK 7

Application of information and communication technologies

This BoK encompasses the ever growing application of technology in a library environment.

In my experience the variety of technologies being used to enhance our services has and will only continue to increase.  Librarians have always been keen users of technologies that assist us to organise information and make it accessible.  The advent of the Internet created a whole new avenue for making information available directly to the public

Project manage LMS migration.

Installation of satellite connectivity on mobile libraries.

Introduction of tablet devices for staff use.. PA

Preparation of a report to council leadership on RFID.

BoK 8

Information resource management and knowledge management

This BoK considers both the practicalities and philosophies of information and knowledge management.

I understand information to be the ‘hard’ resources that we provide access to, their acquisition and management.

Knowledge is what is generated from the use of these resources and may take many forms such as conversations, shared online work spaces of a new understanding of how a piece of information can be applied.

Collection management policy.

Introduction of new acquisitions processes.

Annual review of database subscriptions.

Learning about Te Whare Tapa Whā model of understanding Māori knowledge.

BoK 9

Management in information organisations

This BoK covers the management and planning required to operate a library service.

Most libraries operate within some sort of corporate environment whether government, business or some other entity.  In all these environments planning is essential and needs to be carried out in accordance with the parent organisations goals and policies.

Develop and deliver staff induction and training manual.

Managing Collections budget.

Managing staff including recruitment and budgets.

Contribution to Annual Plan and LTP.

BoK 10

Assessing service effectiveness

This BoK seeks to articulate the ever changing physical and service centred environment that we work in.

In order to remain central to our communities we need to be continually reviewing and changing our collections, spaces and services to meet the changing needs of our customers.

In my experience this needs to be done carefully so that changes are supported by a solid understanding of community need and build in flexibility and mobility for the future change.

Instituting collection maintenance (clearing lost, missing, etc) and weeding programmes.

Reviewing public programmes and changing their frequency and timing to better meet the community’s needs.

BoK 11

Awareness of indigenous (Māori) knowledge paradigms

This BoK acknowledges that knowledge that exists and is created within an indigenous context is quite different from Western traditions.

In my own journey I have come to understand the foundational importance of Te Reo Māori and whakapapa in the generation and transmission of knowledge and the holistic nature of Te Ao Māori.

Attendance at Te Rōpū Whakahau Hui.

My personal journey to reconnect with my whakapapa.

Any questions? Contact the Office!

BOK CLUSTER 1: UNDERSTANDING THE INFORMATION ENVIRONMENT

Bok 1

  • The history and changing nature of the information sector
  • Relevant legal, policy, economic and ethical issues
  • The significance of Te Tiriti o Waitangi in how we develop and deliver services and resources
  • Purpose and content of professional codes of practice

BOK CLUSTER 2: UNDERSTANDING INFORMATION NEEDS, GENERATION, AND ACCESS

Bok 2

  • Understanding how information is created, presented, disseminated and used
  • Identifying the impact and opportunities presented by the changing publishing environment
  • Understanding the role of information organisations in generating and communicating information

Bok 3

  • Identifying and evaluating customer needs
  • Designing and delivering information services

Bok 4

  • Understanding how people find information.
  • Developing literacies for accessing and using information.
  • Using reference and research skills.
  • Promoting the benefits of reading and lifelong learning.

BOK CLUSTER 3: UNDERSTANDING INFORMATION RESOURCE AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

BoK 5

  • Describing,  categorising and storing information.
  • The principles of preservation and conservation.
  • Designing systems for the storage, description and retrieval of information.

BoK 8

  • Collection development and content management principles.
  • Definitions, concepts and frameworks of knowledge and knowledge management.
  • Applying knowledge sharing strategies.

BOK CLUSTER 4: UNDERSTANDING INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES

BoK 7

  • The changing nature of ICTs and their application.
  • Identifying and evaluating ICTs.

BOK CLUSTER 5: UNDERSTANDING MANAGEMENT IN INFORMATION ORGANISATIONS

BoK 6

  • Understanding the nature, methodology and practice of research.
  • Evaluating the quality and relevance of research.
  • Undertaking research by gathering and analysing data and applying the findings to your usual professional practice.

BoK 9

  • Contributing to strategic, business and operational planning.
  • Managing finance, people and resources.
  • Governance structures and stakeholder relationships.

BoK 10

  • Actions taken to assess service quality and effectiveness
  • Identifying or designing methods to measure how well library services are being provideed or library operations are being conducted
  • Measure or assess the quality of library and information facilities, products and services
  • Analyse or interpret results of measuring service effectiveness or quality

BOK 6 CLUSTER: UNDERSTANDING MĀORI KNOWLEDGE PARADIGMS

BoK 11

  • Understanding the importance, diversity or structure of Māori knowledge (mātauranga Māori)
  • Understanding the influence that Māori processes, philosophies and language (kaupapa, tikanga and te reo Māori) are intrinsic in Māori knowledge frameworks
  • Understanding the importance of Māori research methodologies when assisting clients with their information needs

BOK 1: INFORMATION ENVIRONMENT, INFORMATION POLICY & ETHICS

  • The history and changing nature of the information sector
  • Relevant legal, policy, economic and ethical issues
  • The significance of Te Tiriti o Waitangi in how we develop and deliver services and resources
  • Purpose and content of professional codes of practice

When reflecting on your activities, ask yourself - 'What did you learn or practise in this area?'  'How did this impact on your work?'  'What did you do as a result of the activity?'

Some examples of activities include:

  1. Having discussions with your colleagues about copyright legislation or creative commons licencing
  2. Considering cultural and intellectual property implications in accessing and disseminating information
  3. Reading an article about Māori culture and/Intellectual Property rights
  4. Reading up on the LIANZA Code of Practice, or the Centenary History of LIANZA
  5. Reading an article on the economics of online publishing
  6. Having discussions with your colleagues about open access vs restricted access to online resources
  7. Explaining user fees or professional ethics to a colleague
  8. Learning the relevance of Te Tiriti o Waitangi and the Treaty of Waitangi (check out if there is a seminar near you)
  9. Defining how your role contributes to the provision of information in your organisation
  10. Justifying a controversial acquisition
  11. Visiting an archive or museum and compare it to your own organisation
  12. Discussing with colleagues how Te Tiriti o Waitangi or the Treaty of Waitangi is implemented in the organisation

BOK 2: GENERATING, COMMUNICATING & USING INFORMATION

  • Understanding how information is created, presented, disseminated and used
  • Identifying the impact and opportunities presented by the changing publishing environment
  • Understanding the role of information organisations in generating and communicating information

When reflecting on your activities, ask yourself - 'What did you learn or practise in this area?'  'How did this impact on your work?'  'What did you do as a result of the activity?'

Some examples of activitites include:

  1. Explaining Open Access principles to a colleague
  2. Explaining the role of a Whare Tipuna (ancestral house) as a knowledge repository
  3. Recommending platform and format options for material your organisation has produced
  4. Becoming a peer reviewer for a journal or conference
  5. Using social media to build a personal learning network
  6. Preparing a handout comparing key features of current ebook reading devices to help customers choose the one that suits their needs best
  7. Buying an ebook reader and experiment with reading ebooks
  8. Discussing features of an ebook publisher’s online service with their representative
  9. Giving a conference presentation about your library’s experience implementing the Zinio platform for e-magazines
  10. Organising a panel discussion about digital publishing as part of your LIANZA region’s weekend school

BOK 3: INFORMATION NEEDS & DESIGN

  • Identifying and evaluating customer needs
  • Designing and delivering information services

Note – focus on the information you provide, not the technology you use to provide it.

When reflecting on your activities, ask yourself - 'What did you learn or practise in this area?'  'How did this impact on your work?'  'What did you do as a result of the activity?'

Some examples of activities include:

  1. Attending a customer service seminar
  2. Developing a cataloguing policy for a special collection in response to customer needs
  3. Evaluating the needs of new students and offer a course to fill this need
  4. Creating and delivering a presentation on using library collections
  5. Investigating and/or using new methods of delivering information services such as Augmented Reality and Virtual Tours
  6. Liaising with the Māori community to identify information needs (rangatiratanga, te reo)
  7. Writing a booklet on recently published, high quality children’s books for school libraries
  8. Preparing reading lists in response to customer feedback (not suitable for management level roles)
  9. Rearranging the layout of the collection in response to changing needs
  10. Reconfiguring the physical environment
  11. Developing and implementing culturally appropriate services

BOK 4: THE INFORMATION ACCESS PROCESS

  • Understanding how people find information.
  • Developing literacies for accessing and using information.
  • Using reference and research skills.
  • Promoting the benefits of reading and lifelong learning.

When reflecting on your activities, ask yourself - 'What did you learn or practise in this area?'  'How did this impact on your work?'  'What did you do as a result of the activity?'

Some examples of activities include:

  1. Designing a web page to help customers find specific resources.
  2. Giving a presentation on how to do a literature review.
  3. Developing web pages/brochures of key Māori information resources – manaakitanga.
  4. Working with someone to find the best resources for their research topic.
  5. Writing a conference paper on an information literacy project.
  6. Attending an information literacy training seminar.
  7. Training other library staff in subject specific databases.
  8. Using a library blog for readers advisory.
  9. Showing students how to use AnyQuestions and ManyAnswers.
  10. Facilitating a book group.
  11. Reading an article about the reference interview.
  12. Teaching seniors how to use the internet.
  13. Showing a community group how to use the library.
  14. Discussing the role of Library staff in supporting students taking a MOOC.

BOK 5: ORGANISATION, RETRIEVAL, PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION

  • Describing,  categorising and storing information.
  • The principles of preservation and conservation.
  • Designing systems for the storage, description and retrieval of information.

When reflecting on your activities, ask yourself - 'What did you learn or practise in this area?'  'How did this impact on your work?'  'What did you do as a result of the activity?'

Some examples of activities include:

  1. Developing a disaster recovery plan or business continuity plan for collection management.
  2. Implementing or learning how to use a records management system.
  3. Applying standards for cataloguing a new format such as eBooks.
  4. Preserving archival material.
  5. Developing a plan for digitising resources.
  6. Sharing information learnt at a conservation workshop.
  7. Using an online tool to organise and retrieve information for example tagging photos on Flickr, using Diigo.
  8. Attending a webinar on Resource Description and Access (RDA).
  9. Creating an asset management database.
  10. Reading an article on Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR).
  11. Indexing newspaper articles.
  12. Advising a user on how to manage citations.
  13. Updating authority files for local authors.
  14. Applying Māori Subject Headings to authority records – te reo, manaakitanga, whakapapa.

BOK 6: RESEARCH, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF INFORMATION

What is included in BoK 6?

  • Understanding the nature, methodology and practice of research.
  • Evaluating the quality and relevance of research.
  • Undertaking research by gathering and analysing data and applying the findings to your usual professional practice.

When reflecting on your activities, ask yourself - 'What did you learn or practise in this area?'  'How did this impact on your work?'  'What did you do as a result of the activity?'

Some examples of activities include:

  1. Locating and reviewing articles on a service that you are considering providing; and making recommendations.
  2. Identifying the statistical information required to assist with the deselection process.
  3. Designing a survey for a Y9-10 reading classes in order to discover their favourite books and authors; and presenting results to teaching staff.
  4. Becoming familiar with Māori research methodologies to see how they can be used to get feedback from your Māori community – mātauranga Māori.
  5. Investigating SurveyMonkey and other online survey sites to see how they can be used to survey library users.
  6. Interviewing students who were using online databases to see if they fully understood this part of their research process.
  7. Designing survey questions for mobile library users to prioritise which new services they need most.
  8. Attending a workshop on running focus groups.
  9. Writing a proposal for a postgraduate research project.
  10. Analysing census data for a community or collection profile.

BOK 7: APPLICATION OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICTS)

  • The changing nature of ICTs and their application.
  • Identifying and evaluating ICTs.

When reflecting on your activities, ask yourself - 'What did you learn or practise in this area?'  'How did this impact on your work?'  'What did you do as a result of the activity?'

Some examples of activities include:

  1. Using a technology based product with your customers or colleagues in order to enhance communication or the use of information resources, eg podcast, webinar, facebook, ello, skype, iannotate, evernote, storify, penultimate, youtube, MOOCs, library guides, texts, endnote, mendeley.
  2. Investigating the characteristics of hand held devices and how these could be used within your work environment.
  3. Understanding the technology environment of your organisation.
  4. Attending vendor presentations and consider the benefits of their products to your work environment.
  5. Considering ways in which to use ICT to improve the Library’s service eg 3D printers, sound or video editing software, Apps
  6. Understanding the features of RFID tags for inventory control.
  7. Participating in discussion about or the implementation of new software eg macronising software, Adobe products, a Library Management System.
  8. Setting up a webinar

BOK 8: INFORMATION RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

  • Collection development and content management principles.
  • Definitions, concepts and frameworks of knowledge and knowledge management.
  • Applying knowledge sharing strategies.

When reflecting on your activities, ask yourself - 'What did you learn or practise in this area?'  'How did this impact on your work?'  'What did you do as a result of the activity?'

Some examples of activities include:

Information Resource Management

  1. Managing information resources within the organisation.
  2. Writing a collection management policy.
  3. Applying selection policies, procedures and resources.
  4. Reviewing acquisitions processes.
  5. Negotiating licences with publishers, vendors or aggregators.
  6. Selecting EPIC databases.
  7. Identifying , selecting and creating access to key Māori electronic information resources – manaakitanga.
  8. Evaluating the relevance of information resource collection material.
  9. Relocating materials to appropriate storage.
  10. Developing a cooperative arrangement for the audio book collection.

Knowledge Management

  1. Reading an article about the evolution of knowledge management.
  2. Setting up an informal group (community of practice) to work on revalidation journals.
  3. Setting up a wiki to share resources.
  4. Finding out how information flows within the organisation.
  5. Participating in a discussion on Knowledge management and organisational strategy.
  6. Analysing social capital and social networks.
  7. Finding out how knowledge is organised within a hapū/iwi organisation – akoranga.
  8. Attending a lecture on how the culture of an organisation affects knowledge management.
  9. Contributing to the implementation of knowledge management strategies in your organisation.
  10. Determining how knowledge management strategies are perceived and employed by staff in your organisation.

BOK 9: MANAGEMENT IN INFORMATION ORGANISATIONS

  • Contributing to strategic, business and operational planning.
  • Managing finance, people and resources.
  • Governance structures and stakeholder relationships.

When reflecting on your activities, ask yourself - 'What did you learn or practise in this area?'  'How did this impact on your work?'  'What did you do as a result of the activity?'

Some examples of activities include:

  1. Contributing to and executing a strategic operational plan, eg a City or District Council’s Long Term Plan (LTP).
  2. Creating annual operational or activity plans.
  3. Participating in a 'big picture' workshop.
  4. Making a case for employing an additional staff member.
  5. Preparing and managing operational budgets.
  6. Talking to other team members about the importance of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) and how these relate to daily tasks.
  7. Planning for a new library.
  8. Marketing a new collection.
  9. Delivering a presentation about library services to students at a student open day.
  10. Participating in a project as eg project champion, leader, manager, member.
  11. Developing and implementing a new timetable or roster to cover service desks.
  12. Developing a Māori recruitment and retention strategy – rangatiratanga.
  13. Investigating the introduction of whānau supported interviews – manaakitanga.
  14. Taking part in the recruitment and onboarding process for new staff (i.e. interviewing, employing, and induction)

BOK 10: ASSESSING SERVICE EFFECTIVENESS

  • Actions taken to assess service quality and effectiveness
  • Identifying or designing methods to measure how well library services are being provideed or library operations are being conducted
  • Measure or assess the quality of library and information facilities, products and services
  • Analyse or interpret results of measuring service effectiveness or quality

When reflecting on your activities, ask yourself - 'What did you learn or practise in this area?'  'How did this impact on your work?'  'What did you do as a result of the activity?'

Some examples of activities include:

  1. Designing a survey to evaluate a customer service
  2. Analysing results from a survey of library users and recommending appropriate services
  3. Identifying key performance indicators for success of a new service
  4. Visiting another library to compare various workflows
  5. Reviewing the process for doing the monthly weeding report for a branch library to help manage branch stock within target size
  6. Redesigning the cataloguing statistics form to better capture the work each cataloguer produces each week
  7. Measuring library use during a period of time to assess the cost effectiveness of the opening hours
  8. Establishing a trial to review the loan period to encourage reluctant readers to use graphic novels and sophisticated picture books, then review the loan statistics
  9. Evaluating the benefits of a pre-school programme
  10. Conducting a hui with your Māori community to identify what they need and expect from your library service

BOK 11: AWARENESS OF INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE PARADIGMS

  • Understanding the importance, diversity or structure of Māori knowledge (mātauranga Māori)
  • Understanding the influence that Māori processes, philosophies and language (kaupapa, tikanga and te reo Māori) are intrinsic in Māori knowledge frameworks
  • Understanding the importance of Māori research methodologies when assisting clients with their information needs

When reflecting on your activities, ask yourself - 'What did you learn or practise in this area?'  'How did this impact on your work?'  'What did you do as a result of the activity?'

Some examples of activities include:

  1. Attending the Mātauranga Māori within NZ Libraries workshop
  2. Using the correct pronunciation of local Māori words e.g names, locations, iwi
  3. Identifying local marae, hapū and iwi
  4. Reading an article to understand what a Māori repository is, or an article about a Māori knowledge framework e.g. Te Wheke, Whare Tapa Wha
  5. Understanding marae protocols
  6. Participating in a whakatau/pōwhiri
  7. Learning the LIANZA waiata
  8. Introducing or ending your presentation with a mihi
  9. Using te reo on a daily basis e.g. greeting, farewell, emails, letters
  10. Implementing culturally appropriate protocols

BoK 11 is guided by kaupapa Māori values such as

  • Taonga (treasure, property, prized and protected as sacred possessions). Understanding the place of taonga tuku iho (the prized and sacred possessions that are handed down from one generation to the next) in contributing to the survival of Māori as a people
  • Whakatupu mātauranga (creating knowledge, new knowledge). Affirming creative activity to enhance the information and recreational needs of clients
  • Manaakitanga (Mana-enhancing behaviour towards each other, where mana is equated with influence, prestige, power). Committing to giving care and respect to clients, the organisation, and the taonga that they hold
  • Te Reo Māori Understanding that te reo Māori is vital to the identity and survival of Māori as a people. Recognising that competence in  te reo Māori has intrinsic value to the client, organisation and staff
  • Whakapapa (Tacit and explicit knowledge frameworks) Recognising whakapapa is the backbone of Māori society. Recognising whakapapa represents the growth of knowledge. Recognising all things are connected, both animate and inanimate. Recognising collections (as in libraries) have direct links to an original source. Recognising whakapapa is the layering towards both the future and the past
  • Kaitiakitanga (Preserving, maintaining and protecting all knowledge). Practising at all times the five way test for eligibility to be a recipient of restricted knowledge. The five way test consists of: Receiving information with the utmost accuracy, storing the information with integrity beyond doubt, retrieving the information without amendment, applying appropriate judgement in the use of the information, passing on the information appropriately
  • Rangatiratanga (Acknowledging the attributes of others). Demonstrating the ability to lead and unite people, and demonstrating the ability to recognise the potential of others